What is Bit Torrent

Apr 30, 2009

Let’s start from some basics

Basic File sharing: Client-Server and P2P
Skip ahead if you know this part.

A few years ago the Internet was pretty easily divided into two groups: servers and clients. (Just like at a restaurant.) There weren’t that many servers, but their primary job was to hold web pages and files to be downloaded. They didn’t do much other than sit there and wait for people like you to request a web page or file. You, as the client, probably didn’t share any files or web pages with anyone. This segregation was primarily due to the fact that it takes a lot of outgoing bandwidth to share stuff. In a time before broadband DSL and cable modems, back in the days of dialup, most people didn’t have the bandwidth, let alone the knowhow to share stuff on their own. This old system was called client-server, appropriately enough, and it is still used today for the vast majority of stuff on the Internet, including web pages.

With the advent of broadband technologies such as DSL and cable modems, the everyday user like you suddenly has a big chunk of bandwidth, not only for download, but also upload. Sharing files directly from your computer (without first sending them to a server) is now a reality. This is where p2p comes in. The acronym p2p stands for peer-to-peer, which basically means client to client. That is, you download files from people like you instead of from big servers, and in turn they download files from you. You share your files, your friends share their files, and everyone talks directly to each other.

Bit Torrent is a peer-to-peer file sharing (P2P) communication protocol. A Bit Torrent client is the application which uses that protocol. You can use Bit Torrent to share and download any type of file you want. It uses a principal called tit-for-tat. This means that in order to receive files, you have to give them. Bit Torrent downloads different pieces of the file you want simultaneously from multiple computers.

Unlike other download methods, Bit Torrent maximizes transfer speed by gathering pieces of the file you want and downloading these pieces simultaneously from people who already have them. This process makes popular and very large files, such as videos and television programs, download much faster than is possible with other protocols.

The protocol is the brainchild of programmer Bram Cohen, who designed it in April 2001 and released a first implementation on 2 July 2001. It is now maintained by Cohen’s company Bit Torrent, Inc.

How Bit Torrent works?
Before understanding how bit torrent works let us know some bit torrent jargon
  • Seeder = A computer with a complete copy of a Bit Torrent file. Seeder’s uploads the file; to get a file you need at least 1 seed
  • Leecher =People who download files but do not share files on their own computer with others (also known as a peer). Leecher’s downloads the file uploaded by a seeder (he can also upload the file for others to download)
  • Tracker = A program that keeps track of who has what and what pieces or A server that manages the Bit Torrent file-transfer process
  • Swarm = the group of computers involved with any one particular torrent. Or A group of computers simultaneously sending (uploading) or receiving (downloading) the same file. The number of computers that the swarm contains is found by adding the number of seeds to the number of peers.
  • Ratio = the amount you have downloaded to the amount you have uploaded.
To share a file or group of files, a peer first creates a small file called a “torrent” (e.g.” MyFile.torrent”). This file contains metadata about the files to be shared and about the tracker, the computer that coordinates the file distribution. Peers that want to download the file first obtain a torrent file for it, and connect to the specified tracker, which tells them from which other peers to download the pieces of the file.

Users browse the web to find a torrent of interest, download it, and open it with a Bit Torrent client. The client connects to the tracker(s) specified in the torrent file, from which it receives a list of peers currently transferring pieces of the file(s) specified in the torrent. The client connects to those peers to obtain the various pieces. Such a group of peers connected to each other to share a torrent is called a swarm. If the swarm contains only the initial seeder, the client connects directly to it and begins to request pieces. As peers enter the swarm, they begin to trade pieces with one another, instead of downloading directly from the seeder.

Clients incorporate mechanisms to optimize their download and upload rates; for example they download pieces in a random order to increase the opportunity to exchange data, which is only possible if two peers have different pieces of the file.

  • Bit Torrent client software communicates with a tracker to find other computers running Bit Torrent that have the complete file (seed computers) and those with a portion of the file (peers that are usually in the process of downloading the file).
  • The tracker identifies the swarms, which is the connected computers that have all of or a portion of the file and are in the process of sending or receiving it.
  • The tracker helps the client software trade pieces of the file you want with other computers in the swarm. Your computer receives multiple pieces of the file simultaneously.
  • If you continue to run the Bit Torrent client software after your download is complete, others can receive .torrent files from your computer; your future download rates improve because you are ranked higher in the “tit-for-tat” system.
Downloading pieces of the file at the same time helps solve a common problem with other peer-to-peer download methods: Peers upload at a much slower rate than they download. By downloading multiple pieces at the same time, the overall speed is greatly improved. The more computers involved in the swarm, the faster the file transfer occurs because there are more sources of each piece of the file. For this reason, Bit Torrent is especially useful for large, popular files.

The big differences with Torrents compared to other P2P networks are:
a) I don’t have to give the whole file to each person to get it out there - I can give a bit to each person
b) Once I have given a bit out, its availability has just increased, because someone else can then also give it out, and so on and so on. the speed of a torrent will generally get better as more and more people want it - unlike Soul Seek or other P2P apps where you just wait longer to get it!!
c) Torrents technically aren’t illegal. After all, a torrent is just a tiny little file with no copyrighted content. It’s a bit muddy water here though, as they can facilitate the transfer of copyrighted content.

The Bit Torrent protocol provides no way to index torrent files. As a result, a comparatively small number of websites have hosted the large majority of torrents linking to (possibly) copyrighted material, rendering those sites especially vulnerable to lawsuits. Several types of websites support the discovery and distribution of data on the Bit Torrent network.
Public tracker sites such as The Pirate Bay allow users to search in and download from their collection of .torrent files; they also run Bit Torrent trackers for those files. Users can typically also upload .torrent files for content they wish to distribute.

Private tracker sites such as Demonoid operate like public ones except that they restrict access to registered users and keep track of the amount of data each user uploads and downloads, in an attempt to reduce leeching.

There are specialized tracker sites such as FlixFlux for films, bitme for educational content, fullcaliber.be for metal music, PureTnA for pornographic content, and TV torrents for television series. Often these will also be private.

Search engines allow the discovery of .torrent files that are hosted and tracked on other sites; examples include Mininova, Monova, BTJunkie, Torrentz and isoHunt. These sites allow the user to ask for content meeting specific criteria (such as containing a given word or phrase) and retrieve a list of links to .torrent files matching those criteria. This list is often sorted with respect to relevance or number of seeders. Bram Cohen launched a Bit Torrent search engine on http://search.bittorrent.com/ that commingles licensed content with search results.
Limitations and security vulnerabilities

Lack of anonymity
Bit Torrent does not offer its users anonymity. It is possible to obtain the IP addresses of all current, and possibly previous, participants in a swarm from the tracker. This may expose users with insecure systems to attacks.

The leech problem
Bit Torrent file sharers, compared to users of client/server technology, often have little incentive to become seeders after they finish downloading. The result of this is that torrent swarms gradually die out, meaning a lower possibility of obtaining older torrents. Some Bit Torrent websites have attempted to address this by recording each user’s download and upload ratio for all or just the user to see, as well as the provision of access to newer torrent files to people with better ratios. Users who have low upload ratios may see slower download speeds until they upload more. This prevents (statistical) leeching, since after a while they become unable to download much faster than 1-10 kB/s on a high-speed connection. Some trackers exempt dial-up users from this policy, because they cannot upload faster than 1-3 kB/s.

The cheater problem
There are “cheating” clients like BitThief which claim to be able to download without uploading, and because of this can sometimes download faster than regular clients. Such exploitation negatively affects the cooperative nature of the Bit Torrent protocol.

Some Important Things to Remember
  • Keep seeding till you achieve at least a 1:1 RATIO!!!
  • Once you have the file, it’s no good just closing your client and forgetting about it. In order to allow it to be shared for others you MUST continue to seed.
  • You are not invisible when you are in a swarm. Others, including copyright owners if they so wished, can see your IP when you are downloading or uploading a file.
  • If you use a torrent site which has a forum attached, take the time to say thanks to the poster of the torrent. It only takes a moment.
  • The speed at which you download is determined by things such as the Seed to Peer ratio, the seed(ers) upload bandwidth and of course your available download bandwidth. Try to download torrents that have lots of seeders and few peers in order to get faster speeds.
Some good sites
1.Public tracker sites The Pirate Bay.org (my best site)
2.Private tracker sites Demonoid (for registered users)
3.FlixFlux for films
4.bitme for educational content
5.fullcaliber.be for metal music
6.PureTnA for pornographic content
7.ICTorrent.com a forum based torrent site also contains a large no of useful torrents.

Last words
Bit Torrent is perfectly legal to use. However, it is illegal to download copyrighted materials in most countries. So if the file you’re downloading is copyrighted, then what you’re doing is not legal. Also never upload any copyrighted material on net and never seed any such file. If you have read the above article carefully then you will notice that your IP Addresses are not hidden. Help to protect n prevent PIRACY.

1. HowStuffWorks.com
2. Wikipedia
3. Basic File sharing: Client-Server and P2P: Don’t remember the source it is somewhat like tweaking Bit torrent and so on…
4. Some Important Things to Remember: Taken from ICTorrent.com Forums but don’t remember the author.

READ MORE - What is Bit Torrent

The Logon Process

Apr 29, 2009

Users must log on to a Windows NT machine in order to use that NT based machine or network. The logon process itself cannot be bypassed, it is mandatory. Once the user has logged on, an access token is created (this token will be discussed in more detail later).

This token contains user specific security information, such as: security identifier, group identifiers, user rights and permissions. The user, as well as all processes spawned by the user are identified to the system with this token.

The first step in the WinLogon process is something we are all familiar with,
CTRL+ALT+DEL. This is NT’s default Security Attention Sequence (SAS - The SAS key combo can be changed. We will also discuss that later.). This SAS is a signal to the operating system that someone is trying to logon. After the SAS is triggered, all user mode applications pause until the security operation completes or is cancelled. 
(Note: The SAS is not just a logon operation, this same key combination can be used for logging on, logging off, changing a password or locking the workstation.) The pausing, or closing, of all user mode applications during SAS is a security feature that most people take for granted and dont understand. Due to this pausing of applications, logon related trojan viruses are stopped, keyloggers (programs that run in memory, keeping track of keystrokes, therefor recording someones password) are stopped as well.

The user name is not case sensitive but the password is. After typing in your information and clicking OK (or pressing enter), the WinLogon process supplies the information to the security subsystem, which in turn compares the information to the Security Accounts Manager (SAM). If the information is compliant with the information in the SAM, an access token is created for the user. The WinLogon takes the access token and passes it onto the Win32 subsytem, which in turn starts the operating systems shell. The shell, as well as all other spawned processes will receive a token. This token is not only used for security, but also allows NTs auditing and logging features to track user usage and access of network resources.

Note: All of the logon components are located in a file known as the Graphical Indetification and Authentication (GINA) module, specifically MSGINA.DLL. Under certain conditions, this file can be replaced, which is how you would change the SAS key combination.
For fine tuning of the WinLogon process, you can refer to the registry. All of the options for the WinLogon process are contained in the


area. You can also fine tune the process by using the Policy Editor.
Logging on to a Domain If an NT machine is a participant on a Domain, you would not only need to login to the local machine, but the Domain as well. If a computer is a member of a Domain, the WinLogon process is replaced by the NetLogon process.

Image credits: se.edu
READ MORE - The Logon Process

What is Joomla?

Apr 28, 2009

What is Joomla?
Joomla is an award-winning content management system (CMS), which enables you to build Web sites and powerful online applications. Many aspects, including its ease-of-use and extensibility, have made Joomla the most popular Web site software available. Best of all, Joomla is an open source solution that is freely available to everyone.

What’s a content management system (CMS)?
A content management system is software that keeps track of every piece of content on your Web site, much like your local public library keeps track of books and stores them. Content can be simple text, photos, music, video, documents, or just about anything you can think of. A major advantage of using a CMS is that it requires almost no technical skill or knowledge to manage. Since the CMS manages all your content, you don’t have to.

What are some real world examples of what Joomla! can do?

Joomla is used all over the world to power Web sites of all shapes and sizes. For example:
  • Corporate Web sites or portals
  • Corporate intranets and extranets
  • Online magazines, newspapers, and publications
  • E-commerce and online reservations
  • Government applications
  • Small business Web sites
  • Non-profit and organizational Web sites
  • Community-based portals
  • School and church Web sites
  • Personal or family homepages

Who uses Joomla?
Here are just a few examples of Web sites that use Joomla:
United Nations (Governmental organization) - http://www.unric.org
MTV Networks Quizilla (Social networking) - http://www.quizilla.com
L.A. Weekly (Online publication) - http://www.laweekly.com
IHOP (Restaurant chain) - http://www.ihop.com
Harvard University (Educational) - http://gsas.harvard.edu
Citibank (Financial institution intranet) - Not publicly accessible
The Green Maven (Eco-resources) - http://www.greenmaven.com
Outdoor Photographer (Magazine) - http://www.outdoorphotographer.com
PlayShakespeare.com (Cultural) - http://www.playshakespeare.com
Senso Interiors (Furniture design) - http://www.sensointeriors.co.za

More examples of companies using Joomla can be found in the Joomla Site Showcase Forum.

Read more here

READ MORE - What is Joomla?

Directx Explained

Apr 27, 2009

Ever wondered just what that enigmatic name means?
Gaming and multimedia applications are some of the most satisfying programs you can get for your PC, but getting them to run properly isn’t always as easy as it could be. First, the PC architecture was never designed as a gaming platform. Second, the wide-ranging nature of the PC means that one person’s machine can be different from another. While games consoles all contain the same hardware, PCs don’t: the massive range of difference can make gaming a headache.

To alleviate as much of the pain as possible, Microsoft needed to introduce a common standard which all games and multimedia applications could follow – a common interface between the OS and whatever hardware is installed in the PC, if you like. This common interface is DirectX, something which can be the source of much confusion.

DirectX is an interface designed to make certain programming tasks much easier, for both the game developer and the rest of us who just want to sit down and play the latest blockbuster. Before we can explain what DirectX is and how it works though, we need a little history lesson.
DirectX history

Any game needs to perform certain tasks again and again. It needs to watch for your input from mouse, joystick or keyboard, and it needs to be able to display screen images and play sounds or music. That’s pretty much any game at the most simplistic level.
Imagine how incredibly complex this was for programmers developing on the early pre-Windows PC architecture, then. Each programmer needed to develop their own way of reading the keyboard or detecting whether a joystick was even attached, let alone being used to play the game. Specific routines were needed even to display the simplest of images on the screen or play a simple sound.

Essentially, the game programmers were talking directly to your PC’s hardware at a fundamental level. When Microsoft introduced Windows, it was imperative for the stability and success of the PC platform that things were made easier for both the developer and the player. After all, who would bother writing games for a machine when they had to reinvent the wheel every time they began work on a new game? Microsoft’s idea was simple: stop programmers talking directly to the hardware, and build a common toolkit which they could use instead. DirectX was born.

How it works?
At the most basic level, DirectX is an interface between the hardware in your PC and Windows itself, part of the Windows API or Application Programming Interface. Let’s look at a practical example. When a game developer wants to play a sound file, it’s simply a case of using the correct library function. When the game runs, this calls the DirectX API, which in turn plays the sound file. The developer doesn’t need to know what type of sound card he’s dealing with, what it’s capable of, or how to talk to it. Microsoft has provided DirectX, and the sound card manufacturer has provided a DirectX-capable driver. He asks for the sound to be played, and it is – whichever machine it runs on.

From our point of view as gamers, DirectX also makes things incredibly easy – at least in theory. You install a new sound card in place of your old one, and it comes with a DirectX driver. Next time you play your favourite game you can still hear sounds and music, and you haven’t had to make any complex configuration changes.

Originally, DirectX began life as a simple toolkit: early hardware was limited and only the most basic graphical functions were required. As hardware and software has evolved in complexity, so has DirectX. It’s now much more than a graphical toolkit, and the term has come to encompass a massive selection of routines which deal with all sorts of hardware communication. For example, the DirectInput routines can deal with all sorts of input devices, from simple two-button mice to complex flight joysticks. Other parts include DirectSound for audio devices and DirectPlay provides a toolkit for online or multiplayer gaming.
DirectX versions
The current version of DirectX at time of writing is DirectX 9.0. This runs on all versions of Windows from Windows 98 up to and including Windows Server 2003 along with every revision in between. It doesn’t run on Windows 95 though: if you have a machine with Windows 95 installed, you’re stuck with the older and less capable 8.0a. Windows NT 4 also requires a specific version – in this case, it’s DirectX 3.0a.

With so many versions of DirectX available over the years, it becomes difficult to keep track of which version you need. In all but the most rare cases, all versions of DirectX are backwardly compatible – games which say they require DirectX 7 will happily run with more recent versions, but not with older copies. Many current titles explicitly state that they require DirectX 9, and won’t run without the latest version installed. This is because they make use of new features introduced with this version, although it has been known for lazy developers to specify the very latest version as a requirement when the game in question doesn’t use any of the new enhancements. Generally speaking though, if a title is version locked like this, you will need to upgrade before you can play. Improvements to the core DirectX code mean you may even see improvements in many titles when you upgrade to the latest build of DirectX. Downloading and installing DirectX need not be complex, either.

Upgrading DirectX
All available versions of Windows come with DirectX in one form or another as a core system component which cannot be removed, so you should always have at least a basic implementation of the system installed on your PC. However, many new games require the very latest version before they work properly, or even at all.

Generally, the best place to install the latest version of DirectX from is the dedicated section of the Microsoft Web site, which is found at www.microsoft.com/windows/directx. As we went to press, the most recent build available for general download was DirectX 9.0b. You can download either a simple installer which will in turn download the components your system requires as it installs, or download the complete distribution package in one go for later offline installation.
Another good source for DirectX is games themselves. If a game requires a specific version, it’ll be on the installation CD and may even be installed automatically by the game’s installer itself. You won’t find it on magazine cover discs though, thanks to Microsoft’s licensing terms.

Diagnosing problems
Diagnosing problems with a DirectX installation can be problematic, especially if you don’t know which one of the many components is causing your newly purchased game to fall over. Thankfully, Microsoft provides a useful utility called the DirectX Diagnostic Tool, although this isn’t made obvious. You won’t find this tool in the Start Menu with any version of Windows, and each tends to install it in a different place.

The easiest way to use it is to open the Start Menu’s Run dialog, type in dxdiag and then click OK. When the application first loads, it takes a few seconds to interrogate your DirectX installation and find any problems. First, the DirectX Files tab displays version information on each one of the files your installation uses. The Notes section at the bottom is worth checking, as missing or corrupted files will be flagged here.

The tabs marked Display, Sound, Music, Input and Network all relate to specific areas of DirectX, and all but the Input tab provide tools to test the correct functioning on your hardware. Finally, the More Help tab provides a useful way to start the DirectX Troubleshooter, Microsoft’s simple linear problem solving tool for many common DirectX issues.
source: Internet doesent remember the name and site of original author

READ MORE - Directx Explained

What’s your site worth?

Apr 26, 2009

As an independent website or blog operator, it is in your best interest to always know if you are maximizing your site’s earning potential through advertising, affiliate marketing, and independent advertising arrangements. This free tool will analyze your site, and let you know how well it’s being monetized, and what value you could sell it for.

The following two sites are best for calculating how much worthful is your site


I like both equally,  stimator gives a detailed report whereas website value calculator gives real value (in dollors) of our site.

READ MORE - What’s your site worth?

Religious search

Apr 25, 2009

So you are a religious guy, and want to search some religious content but you know pnly one search engine that is google. It’s tough to get out something from google that you were seeking but no problem now!

As a new search engine has arrived which searches only religious content. Well, most likely you can’t find what you want on Google or Yahoo as fast as what MyGodSearch.

It enables religous content to search over 2,000 sites about religion using a Google-powered search and the results are pretty relevant to the keyword you’ve entered.
READ MORE - Religious search

Web 3.0 by Eric Schmidt

Apr 24, 2009

Here is what Eric Schmidt (Google’s CEO) has to say on web3.0

READ MORE - Web 3.0 by Eric Schmidt

The Finger Command

Apr 23, 2009

By default, finger will list the login name, full name, terminal name, and write status
(shown as a “*” before the terminal name if write permission is denied), idle time, login
time, office location, and phone number (if known) for each current user connected to the

finger [-l] [User] [@host] [...]

-b Brief output format
-f Supresses the printing of the header line.
-i Provides a quick list of users with idle time.
-l Forces long output format.
-p Supresses printing of the .plan file (if present)
-q Provides a quick list of users.
-s Forces short output form.
-w Forces narrow output form.

To display information for user1 on the computer users.microsoft.com, type the following command: finger user1@users.microsoft.com

To display information for all users on the computer users.microsoft.com, type the following command: finger @users.microsoft.com

READ MORE - The Finger Command

The Netstat Command

Apr 22, 2009

Displays active TCP connections, ports on which the computer is listening, Ethernet statistics, the IP routing table, IPv4 statistics (for the IP, ICMP, TCP, and UDP protocols), and IPv6 statistics (for the IPv6, ICMPv6, TCP over IPv6, and UDP over IPv6 protocols). Used without parameters, netstat displays active TCP connections.

netstat [-a] [-e] [-n] [-o] [-p Protocol] [-r] [-s] [Interval]

-A Shows the addresses of any associated protocol control blocks.
-a Will show the status of all sockets. Sockets associated with network
server processes are normally not shown.
-I Shows the state of the network interfaces.
-m Prints the network memory usage.
-n Causes netstat to show actual addresses as opposed to hostnames or
network names.
-r Prints the routing table.
-s Tells netstat to show the per protocol statistics.
-t Replaces the queue length information with timer information.

To display both the Ethernet statistics and the statistics for all protocols, type the following command: netstat -e -s

To display the statistics for only the TCP and UDP protocols, type the following
command: netstat -s -p tcp udp

To display active TCP connections and the process IDs every 5 seconds, type the following command: nbtstat -o 5

To display active TCP connections and the process IDs using numerical form, type the following command: nbtstat -n -o

READ MORE - The Netstat Command

How to use PING

Apr 21, 2009

The ping (Packet Internet Groper) is used to send ICMP (Internet Control Message
Protocol) packets from one host to another. Ping transmits packets using the ICMP
ECHO_REQUEST command and expects an ICMP ECHO_REPLY. Ping is the primary TCP/IP command used to troubleshoot connectivity, reachability, and name resolution.

ping [-t] [-a] [-n Count] [-l Size] [-f] [-i TTL] [-v TOS] [-r Count] [-s Count] [{-j HostList | -k HostList}] [-w Timeout] [TargetName]

-t Ping the specifed host until interrupted.
-a Resolve addresses to hostnames.
-n count Number of echo requests to send.
-l size Send buffer size.
-f Set Don’t Fragment flag in packet.
-i TTL Time To Live.
-v TOS Type Of Service.
-r count Record route for count hops.
-s count Timestamp for count hops.
-j host-list Loose source route along host-list.
-k host-list Strict source route along host-list.
-w timeout Timeout in milliseconds to wait for each reply.

The following example shows ping command output:

C:\>pimg example.microsoft.com

Pinging example.microsoft.com [] with 32 bytes of data:
Reply from bytes=32 time=101ms TTL=124
Reply from bytes=32 time=100ms TTL=124
Reply from bytes=32 time=120ms TTL=124
Reply from bytes=32 time=120ms TTL=124

To pingthe destination and resolve to its host name, 
type: ping -a

To ping the destination with 10 Echo Request messages, each of which has a Data field of 1000 bytes, 
type: ping-n 10 -l 1000

To ping the destination and record the route for 4 hops,
type: ping-r 4

To ping the destination and specify the loose source route of,
type: ping -j

READ MORE - How to use PING

The Telnet Command

Apr 20, 2009

Technically, telnet is a protocol. This means it is a language that computer use to
communicate with one another in a particular way. From your point of view, Telnet is a program that lets you login to a site on the Internet through your connection to Teleport.

It is a terminal emulation program, meaning that when you connect to the remote site,
your computer functions as a terminal for that computer.
Once the connection is made, you can use your computer to access information, run
programs, edit files, and otherwise use whatever resources are available on the other
computer. What is available depends on the computer you connect to. Most of the times, if you type ‘?’ or ‘help’, you would normally receive some type of information, menu options, etc.

Note: telnet connections give you command-line access only. In other words, instead of being able to use buttons and menus as you do with a graphical interface, you have to type commands. However, telnet allows you to use certain utilities and resources you cannot access with your other Internet applications.

Usage: telnet hostname or IP address port(optional)

READ MORE - The Telnet Command

Windows Sockets

Apr 19, 2009

Windows Sockets is the mechanism for communication between applications running on
the same computer or those running on different computers which are connected to a
LAN or WAN. Windows Sockets defines a set of standard API’s that an application uses
to communicate with one or more other applications, usually across a network. Windows
Sockets supports initiating an outbound connection, accepting inbound connections,
sending and receiving data on those connections, and terminating a session.

Windows socket is a port of the Berkeley Sockets API that existed on Unix, with
extensions for integration into the Win16 and Win32 application environments. Windows
Sockets also includes support for other transports such as IPX/SPX and NetBEUI.
Windows Sockets supports point-to-point connection-oriented communications and
point-to-point or multipoint connectionless communications when using TCP/IP.
Windows Socket communication channels are represented by data structures called
sockets. A socket is identified by an address and a port,
for example;

A more detailed explanation is here...
Image Credits: burks.bton.ac.uk

READ MORE - Windows Sockets

IP Address to a IP Number

Apr 18, 2009

How TO convert an IP Address to a IP Number?
IP address (IPV4) is divided into 4 sub-blocks. Each sub-block has a different weight number.

To calculate IP Number the formula is given below
IP Number = 16777216*a + 65536*b + 256*c + d

IP Address = a.b.c.d

For example, if IP address is ““, then its IP Number would be

IP Number = 16777216*127 + 65536*4 + 256*5 + 13
= 2130706432 + 262144 + 1280 + 13
= 2130969869

READ MORE - IP Address to a IP Number

How To: Disable Windows XP Boot Screen

Apr 17, 2009

You all have read about a lot of tutoial telling hoe to change your boot screen, today i came with a wiered how to which may some Geeks like, in this how to i will tell you how to disable your bootscreen.

Well it is a very simple process to do all you have to do is
1.) Go to Start > Run
2.) Type msconfig and hit enter.
3.) Now move to Boot.ini tab and check on /NOGUIBOOT option.
4.) Click Apply.

For some elder geeks here is a different procedure to do the same
1.) Right-click on My Computer > Properties
2.) Navigate to Advanced tab, and press the Settings button under the Startup and Recovery.
3.) Click the Edit button and look for this line
multi(0)disk(0)rdisk(0)partition(3)\WINDOWS="Microsoft Windows XP Professional" /noexecute=optin /fastdetect

Now at the end of this line add /sos, so it would look like this: multi(0)disk(0)rdisk(0)partition(1)\WINNT="Microsoft Windows XP Professional" /fastdetect /sos
4.) Save your changes, and press OK.

Now when you reboot your system you will see a black screen and no boot up default screen. So what you gonnna do making your geek friend fool by secretly doing this on his computer do whatever you want but if you like it please leave a reply here...

READ MORE - How To: Disable Windows XP Boot Screen

what do u do while installing windows

What do yo do when you are installing windows

I know just get bored n bored n bored isin’t it.

So here is a tweak by which you can play hearts edit contents of notepad etc
while installing OS just hit SHIFT+F10 and the command prompt will be get opened now everything is clear to open any of the application just type it name n hit enter like


note this tweak works when you got the GUI

READ MORE - what do u do while installing windows

How To: Convert Chm file to HTML

Apr 16, 2009

do u want 2 convert chm file to a html file, than follow the tutorial below to know how to convert

Don't know what chm is click here...

then open command prompt and type the following lines
hh.exe -decompile folder_name your_filename.chm

This will decompress all files embedded in your_filename.chm to folder_name
READ MORE - How To: Convert Chm file to HTML

shutdown in 5 sec

Apr 15, 2009

Want to shutdown you system in 5 sec
open taskmanager>Shutdown
and then click on Turn off while pressing CTRL key
For more tips n tricks download More than 100 registry TIPS n TRICKS>
READ MORE - shutdown in 5 sec

Most secure folder locker

Apr 13, 2009

I came to knew this tweak when i was using VISTA ULTIMATE to secure my folder i go to its properties>security then i have edited the permissions all to DENY so that my folder is completely protected.
YEAH i knew that you all knew that but the main thing starts from here
1. Create a folder in your pendrive (In VISTA)
2. copy all of your contents in that folder

3. EDIT the permissions
4. Now copy this Folder in WINDOWS XP
n thats it now your folder is secured there is no way out to see, edit, modify or delete the folder. The only way is to switch to VISTA n then again edit the permissions
READ MORE - Most secure folder locker

Make Acrobat Reader 6 load faster

Here’s how to do it:
1. Go to C:\Program Files\Adobe\Acrobat 6.0\Reader (replace the C if you installed on another drive, like I did).
2. Create a new folder called plug_ins_disabled.
3. Move all files from the plug_ins folder to the plug_ins_disabled folder except EWH32.api, printme.api, and search.api. There should only be these 3 files in the plug_ins folder.
4. You’re done.
READ MORE - Make Acrobat Reader 6 load faster

How to: Configure Outlook 2007 for Gmail Account

Apr 11, 2009

Wouldn't it be great if you recieve all your gmail account emails on your Outlook account, so that you can read and reply them without loging into Gmail.

Receiving Gmail emails's in Outlook doesn't means that you will not have emails on Gmail account, you can ask gmail to keep emails in its account also, or archive them. Or remove all those emails that you have grabed on Outlook.

Configure Outlook for Gmail Account:
First you need to configure Gmail, and enable POP.
To enable POP in Gmail:
  • Sign in to Gmail.
  • Click Settings.
  • Click Forwarding and POP/IMAP.
  • Select Enable POP for all mail or Enable POP for mail that arrives from now on.
  • Choose the action you'd like your Gmail messages to take after they are accessed with POP.
  • Click on Save Changes.
Now your POP settings is enabled now you can setup Outlook for Gmail account, to do that follow the below instructions.

  • Open Outlook.
  • Click Tools > Accounts.
  • Now in Internet Accounts dialog box click Add.
  • Click Email Account > Next.
  • Type your name in Display Name, and click Next.
  • Type Your gmail address, and click Next.

  • Type pop.gmail.com under Incoming mail server (POP3).
  • Type smtp.gmail.com under Outgoing mail server (SMTP).
  • Make sure My outgoing server (SMTP) requires authentication is checked.
  • Click next.
  • Type your Gmail user ID and Password and click Next.
  • Clcik Finish.
  • Now again go to Tools> Accounts.
  • Click on pop.gmail.com and select Properties.
  • Click Advanced tab.
  • Make sure This server requires an encrypted connection (SSL) is checked under both Incoming server (POP3): and Outgoing server (SMTP):.
  • Type 587 under Outgoing Mail (SMTP):
  • Type 995 under Incoming mail (POP3):

  • Click Apply > Ok.
  • Now go to Tools and click Synchronize all.

Image Credits: Google help and crownheights.info
READ MORE - How to: Configure Outlook 2007 for Gmail Account

here are coffins for techies

Apr 10, 2009

if you’re really interested you can request one to be made here.

Image credits: makeuseof.com

READ MORE - here are coffins for techies

After Photofunia its Deepfunia

Apr 9, 2009

You all have used Photofunia to edit your images but in photofunia the templates are limited. So here comes a new online photo editing websites that provides more than 200 templates to use and beyond this it is a free site to use... No hidden cost or anything.

And the method to edit your photos is simpler and almost same like Photofunia. But it is more faster than that, and the templates here are really good. Its again a 3 step process to edit your photos.

First Go to DeepFunia.
Now select a template.
Upload your photo.
And right click and save your photos...
READ MORE - After Photofunia its Deepfunia

Backup Mozilla Firefox

Apr 8, 2009

Ever wondered what will happen if you wkae up one day and have to format whole of your drive and have no back up of data . Here is the tutorial that will allow you to back up your firefox data.

MozBackup is a simple utility for creating backups of Mozilla Firefox, Mozilla Thunderbird, Mozilla Sunbird, Flock, SeaMonkey, Mozilla Suite, Spicebird, Songbird and Netscape profiles.

It allows you to backup and restore bookmarks, mail, contacts, history, extensions, cache etc. It's an easy way to do Firefox backup, Thunderbird backup ...

MozBackup is compatible with:

Firefox 1.0 - 3.1
Thunderbird 1.0 - 3.0 Beta 2
Sunbird 0.3 - 0.9
Flock 1.0 - 2.0
SeaMonkey 1.0a - 2.0 Alpha 3
Mozilla Suite 1.7 - 1.7.x
Spicebird 0.4 - 0.8
Songbird 1.0
Netscape 7.x, 9.x

This program is freeware and works on Windows 98/ME/NT/2000/XP/2003/Vista. It's developed in Czech republic.


Image Credits: dailygalaxy.com
READ MORE - Backup Mozilla Firefox

Weird Login Screen

Apr 7, 2009

Here is the most weired login screen.

Download this from the link given below

Download from here Direct link
READ MORE - Weird Login Screen

Enable Right Clicks on The Sites Dat Disable it

Apr 5, 2009

You may have visited a lot of sites which have disabled right click in it... it's really, really annoying.

Like orkut has disabled clicking right click on album view foler, so that you can not save photos by right clicking and selecting save as image.

So here is the tutorial which enables right click

For Internet Explorer users:
  • Click "Tools">"Internet Options" 
  • Click the "Security" tab 
  • Click "Custom Level" 
  • Scroll down to the "Scripting" section 
  • Set "Active Scripting" to "disable" 
  • Click "Ok".

For Firefox users:
  • Click "Tools">"Options" 
  • Click the "Content" tab 
  • Uncheck "Enable Javascript" (Set "Enable Javascript" to "disable" )
  • Click "Ok".

Hope you liked that if you know some other please tell me

Image Credits: dbtechno.com

READ MORE - Enable Right Clicks on The Sites Dat Disable it

Use scr.im to get less spam

Apr 4, 2009

Leaving your email as plain text in forums, on Twitter or on classified sites makes you an easy spam target: spam robots and email harvesters constantly browse these sites to collect new victim emails.

Don't share your email on public sites. Instead, use our free servicethat will convert your email address (joe@email.com) into a safe and short URL (for instance http://scr.im/joe). People willing to email you will go to this URL that will reveal your email address, after a simple test that automated scripts and bots cannot pass.

Don't share your email. Don't make yourself an easy spam target.

scr.im is currently in its early life. It's totally working, but there still might be some kinks here and there. To convert your email address into a short, cute and safe link you can share on the web (in Facebook, Twitter, forums, Craigslist, anywhere) go to Scr.im
READ MORE - Use scr.im to get less spam

What is a Page Rank

Page Rank as the name says it is the ranking of a particular page based on different aspect that we have discussed below, but before that lets have a proper introduction of Page Rank.

What is Page Rank?
PageRank is a link analysis algorithm used by the Google that assigns a numerical weighting to each element of a hyperlinked set of documents, such as the World Wide Web, with the purpose of "measuring" its relative importance within the set. The numerical weight that it assigns to any given element E is also called the PageRank of E and denoted by PR(E).

Google describes PageRank:
PageRank relies on the uniquely democratic nature of the web by using its vast link structure as an indicator of an individual page’s value. In essence, Google interprets a link from page A to page B as a vote, by page A, for page B. But, Google looks at more than the sheer volume of votes, or links a page receives; it also analyzes the page that casts the vote. Votes cast by pages that are themselves “important” weigh more heavily and help to make other pages “important.”

PageRank was developed at Stanford University by Larry Page (hence the name Page-Rank).

Internet is a web of a lot of webpages, and webpages contains a lot of links called hyper links to different webpages, this process goes on and on. Everyday lot of new webpages is added in this list in some of which contains useful information needed by you. But you don't know the url/address of all sites, therefore you uses Internet search engine like Google which helps you to find out those important pages. Now the question is how Google predicts which page is important and which one is not. This is where the concept of Page rank comes into being. This article will describe Google's PageRank algorithm and how it returns pages from the web's collection of 25 billion documents that match search criteria so well that "google" has become a widely used verb.

Most search engines, including Google, continually run an army of computer programs that retrieve pages from the web, index the words in each document, and store this information in an efficient format. Each time a user asks for a web search using a search phrase, such as "search engine," the search engine determines all the pages on the web that contains the words in the search phrase. (Perhaps additional information such as the distance between the words "search" and "engine" will be noted as well.) Here is the problem: Google now claims to index 25 billion pages. Roughly 95% of the text in web pages is composed from a mere 10,000 words. This means that, for most searches, there will be a huge number of pages containing the words in the search phrase. What is needed is a means of ranking the importance of the pages that fit the search criteria so that the pages can be sorted with the most important pages at the top of the list.

One way to determine the importance of pages is to use a human-generated ranking. For instance, you may have seen pages that consist mainly of a large number of links to other resources in a particular area of interest. Assuming the person maintaining this page is reliable, the pages referenced are likely to be useful. Of course, the list may quickly fall out of date, and the person maintaining the list may miss some important pages, either unintentionally or as a result of an unstated bias.
Google's PageRank algorithm assesses the importance of web pages without human evaluation of the content. In fact, Google feels that the value of its service is largely in its ability to provide unbiased results to search queries; Google claims, "the heart of our software is PageRank." As we'll see, the trick is to ask the web itself to rank the importance of pages.

You can check your Page rank from here

How to increase your PR

To know how page rank algorithm works click here ..
READ MORE - What is a Page Rank

History of Internet

Apr 2, 2009

READ MORE - History of Internet

How To:Copy images from your friend’s orkut profile

Apr 1, 2009

Well there are a lot of method to that, I am explaining 3 important method

Method 1.
For Internet Explorer users:
  • Click "Tools">"Internet Options"
  • Click the "Security" tab
  • Click "Custom Level"
  • Scroll down to the "Scripting" section
  • Set "Active Scripting" to "disable"
  • Click "Ok".

For Firefox users:
  • Click "Tools">"Options"
  • Click the "Content" tab
  • Uncheck "Enable Javascript" (Set "Enable Javascript" to "disable" )
  • Click "Ok".

Now you can just right click on any photo and selects save as image from options to save photo. Hope it helps you. If not see the tutorial below-

Method 2.

READ MORE - How To:Copy images from your friend’s orkut profile

Send fake e-mails

While browsing internet today i have found a really good site which allows you to send fake emails to anyone you want. FakeSend site that lets you send free fake emails to anyone with an email address. 

Fake Send
All you have to do is simply fill out the fields to have an email message delivered to the recipient specified. Your recipient will receive an anonymous e-mail message at the address you provide as well as see the message as sent-from the sender you input. Click send message and your anonymity is protected while we deliver your email message(s), keeping you anonymous!

This website is a perfect way to prank your friends, your boss, or anyone at all! There's no signup, no fees, nothing. Just free emailing. Sending fake emails is also makes a perfect April Fools joke, so be sure to come back then as well!

READ MORE - Send fake e-mails

About Author

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Working as an Automation Analyst, Ritesh is very passionate about developing tools and apps. His profile contains a long list of tools developed for Windows and apps for Android platform.